It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. This land border was built by German army during World War I in 1917. Boundary line between India and China, demarcated under a boundary pact concluded in 1914 A.D. is called (a) Radcliffe Line (b) Green Line (c) Control Line (d) McMahon Line 10. The Fifth Army lost 14,000–16,000 casualties and German losses in two divisions were 4,500 casualties, with casualties in the regiments of five other divisions engaged being c. 1,000 at a minimum. The Battle of the Somme further reduced the German reserve of ammunition and when the infantry was forced out of the front position, the need for Sperrfeuer (defensive barrages), to compensate for the lack of obstacles, increased. Small parties of the 62nd Division reached the first objective and were cut off, the division having c. 3,000 casualties, an attack by the 7th Division was driven back.  Outpost villages close to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) south of Quéant had to be held by the Germans for longer than expected, because of the need to complete the additions to the defences being built to remedy defects in the original position. The line went from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons in Aisne. The Nivelle Offensive was planned to begin with a British attack on the Bapaume salient in early April 1917, to assist the main French attacks a week later by holding German troops on the Arras front and diverting reserves from the Aisne.  The defences were built by German construction companies, who brought skilled workmen to fabricate ferro concrete emplacements, while 12,000 German and 3,000 Belgian labourers and 50,000 mainly Russian prisoners of war dug the trenches. The existing artillery positions were scrapped and the artillery sited to dominate ground useful for the assembly of assault-troops, such as the La Vacquerie plateau. Ernst von Wrisberg (de) Deputy Minister of the Prussian Ministry of War, responsible for raising new units, had grave doubts about the wisdom of this increase in the army but was over-ruled by Ludendorff. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand.  Mass-production techniques were used to produce items for the position. The German artillery fired 213 train-loads of field artillery shells and 217 train-loads of heavy ammunition, yet the début of the tank, the defeat at the Battle of Thiepval (26–28 September) and the number of casualties (September was the costliest month of the battle for the German armies) had been severe blows to German morale. By the end of the Battle of Morval (25–28 September) Rupprecht had no reserves left on the Somme. The French returned to a policy of decisive battle, with a breakthrough to be achieved within 24–48 hours, leading to the "total destruction of active enemy forces by manoeuvre and battle". 9: The Radcliffe Line. forms most of the boundary between the State of Nebraska and the State of South Dakota and also formed the northern border of the historic and extralegal Territory of Jefferson. British casualties in France from January to March 1917, were given as 67,217, French casualties given were 108,000 and German 65,381. Before the war, Germany had imported nitrates for propellant manufacture and only the discovery before the war of the Haber process for the synthesis of nitrates from atmospheric nitrogen, enabled Germany to produce explosives while blockaded. Two cavalry divisions were attached to the Fourth and Fifth armies for the advance, with aircraft for reconnaissance of the ground that the cavalry was to traverse and to help the cavalry maintain touch with the rear. Even with the expansion of the German army over the winter and the transfer of divisions from Russia, 154 German divisions the Western Front were confronted by 190 French, British and Belgian divisions, many of which were bigger than the German equivalents. India recognizes the Durand Line but Afghanistan does not. c) McMohan Line. An interpretation of the Bullecourt photograph. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Between four states in the United States. Limited-objective attacks at Loos, Arras, the Somme and the Aisne were considered but the manpower and equipment shortage meant that even smaller attacks risked using up reserves needed for defence against the expected Anglo-French spring offensives. In 1916, the German offensive at the Battle of Verdun had been a costly failure. The main line of defence was the second line, which was equipped with dugouts for most of the front garrison. The boundary line between â¦ the line or plane indicating the limit or extent of something. e) None of these The Germans retreated to this â¦ Readmore The new line would be similar but on reverse slopes, have dugouts for 24,000 men and be ready by 15 March. An attempt at a swifter pursuit by French cavalry and cyclists on 22 March failed, when they were forced back over the Crozat canal by a German counter-attack, with many casualties. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 263. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. , The first attack of the Nivelle Offensive by the British First and Third armies came at Arras, north of the Hindenburg Line on 9 April and inflicted a substantial defeat on the German 6th Army, which occupied obsolete defences on forward slopes. Work began on another defensive position in the autumn of 1917, with the original Hindenburg Line as its front-trench system. c) McMohan Line. They predicted that Ablösungsdivisionen (relief divisions) would not be ready in time for hasty counter-attacks to succeed and that they should make planned counter-attacks after 24–48 hours with full artillery support. Unrestricted submarine warfare and strategic bombing would weaken the Anglo-French as the German armies in the west (Westheer) recuperated. Roads built on causeways over marshy ground between the river and canal, caused water to form pools 0.5 mi (0.80 km) wide, making crossings practical only at the causeways. The Hindenburg Line was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne. During September, the Germans sent another thirteen fresh divisions to the British sector and scraped up troops wherever they could be found. 17. Allgemeines über Stellungsbau (Principles of Field Fortification) was published in January 1917, in which instructions were given for the construction of defences in depth, according to the principles of greater depth and of disguise by dispersal and camouflage. Over the winter, German deception operations were conducted and indications of an offensive through Switzerland diverted French attention at the end of 1916. Durand Line: Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan. It was drawn up in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand. d) Hindenburg Line. List of important boundary lines. On 9 April the Fourth Army began a bombardment of the Hindenburg Line, with such heavy artillery that was in range, as the Third and First armies began the offensive at Arras to the north. The advance had fewer geographical obstacles than further south. Not until 26 January, did a British intelligence summary report a new line of defence between Arras and Laon. The buildings of Nesle, Ham, Noyon and several villages were excluded from the plan and 10,000–15,000 French civilians were to be left behind in them, while 150,000 able-bodied civilians were to be evacuated to work in the rest of occupied France and Belgium. Hindenburg and Ludendorff ordered the creation of another 22 divisions, to reach 179 divisions by early 1917. The 7th Division was relieved by part of the 58th Division, which attacked the Red Patch again on 17 May and captured the ruins, just before the Germans were able to withdraw, which ended the battle. Which line is the boundary between India and Pakistan ? Hindenburg Line, defensive barrier improvised by the German army on the Western Front in World War I.Faced with substantial numerical inferiority and a dwindling firepower advantage, the new German commanders, Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and Gen. Erich Ludendorff, shortened their lines and installed … (a) Hindenburg Line (b) Curzon Line (c) Green Line (d) Plimsoll Line Show Answer (b) Curzon Line. The Germans Marched to this line in 1917 during World War I. During World War- I in March 1917 German soldiers retreated towards this line.  [g] Squadrons would not need to move every day and could arrange temporary landing-grounds.  The length of the Western Front was reduced by 25 mi (40 km), which needed 13–14 fewer German divisions to hold. Ludendorff accepted the analysis that no offensive was possible. The German retirement from the Riegel III Stellung had begun on 19 March when Nurlu and Bertincourt were occupied by the British after slight pressure.  On the right flank, IV Corps had to advance about 14 mi (23 km) over cratered and blocked roads to reach the Somme but Corps Mounted Troops and cyclists arrived on 18 March to find German rearguards also mounted on bicycles. Durand Line: Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was considered that the Somme front, the area between Arras and Lille, the Aisne front, Lorraine and Flanders were particularly threatened. The German retirement was so swift and the amount of artillery fire was so small, that telephone wires were cut far less frequently than expected. Some of the columns advanced boldly and others dug in temporarily as a precaution. The French Third Army captured the Epine de Dallon on 3 April, bringing it up to the Hindenburg Line and on 4 April the British captured Metz en Couture in a snowstorm. On 24 February, the Germans withdrew to the Riegel I Stellung protected by rear guards, over roads in relatively good condition, which they then destroyed. Name Boundary Durand Line The line demarcating the boundaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Lagnicourt was occupied for a short time and five British guns destroyed but the rest of the attack failed. The Allies expected to have 168 divisions against 129 German divisions, for the co-ordinated offensives. Next day the "Red Patch" was attacked again and a small part held after German counter-attacks. The Germans with drawn this line in 1917 at the time of World War I Marginal Line: Marginal Line: This boundary line was the 320 km line of defensive wall on the Russia-Finland border. A prisoner revealed that this was to be part of a bigger retirement to the Hindenburg Position. It was the Line that described Germanyâs position during the World War I. 1.14 th Parallel line 2.24 th Parallel line 3.28 th Parallel line 4.34 th Parallel line. Answer ... Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Both theories were incorporated by Ludendorff into the new Ausbildungsvorschrift für die Fusstruppen im Kriege (Training Manual for Foot troops in War) of March 1917. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Marginal Line was the 320-km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. On the army boundary with the French the 32nd Division kept two brigades in line and one in reserve. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I. , German reconnaissance aircraft surveyed all of the Western Front over the winter of 1916–1917 to look for signs Anglo-French offensive preparations. , At 4:05 a.m. on 15 April, elements of four German divisions attacked from the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) from Havrincourt to Quéant to occupy Noreuil, Lagnicourt, Morchies, Boursies, Doignies, Demicourt and Hermies until nightfall, to inflict casualties, destroy British artillery to make a British attack in the area impossible and to attract British reserves from the Arras front further north. Divisions released by the retirement and other reinforcements increased the number of divisions on the Aisne front to 38 by early April. There have been big or small skirmishes between different countries on the issue of boundary lines. In, German defensive preparations in early 1917, Operations on the Ancre, January–March 1917, First attack on Bullecourt, 11 April 1917, Second Battle of Bullecourt, 3–17 May 1917, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, The German Retreat and the Battle of Arras, Imperial War Museum, The Hindenburg Line: The Apotheosis of German Fortifications on the Western Front in the Great War westernfront co uk. Hindenburg: Line Is the divider line between Germany and Poland. Macmahon Line: Macmahon Line existed between India and China. On September 29, 1918, after a 56-hour-long bombardment, Allied forces breach the so-called Hindenburg Line, the last line of German defenses on the Western Front during World War I.  Next day, an escaped Russian prisoner of war, reported that 2,000 prisoners were working on concrete dug-outs near St Quentin. , On a visit to Kuhl on 20 January, Fuchs concluded that Allied superiority was so great that the German army could not forestall the Anglo-French with an attack or stop them attacking elsewhere. On 21 and 22 February, Australian troops captured more of Stormy Trench despite rain, which made the ground even more "appalling", than before the freeze in January and early February. Drawn up by â¦ It was a defensive fortification built against the Soviet Union â¦ On 8 February, a battalion of the 17th Division took a trench overlooking Saillisel and held it, despite German counter-attacks that continued on 9 February. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. a) Durand Line. Trenches had been dug near a crest, on a forward slope or at the rear of a reverse slope, which replicated the obsolete positions being abandoned. , The British advance in the Fourth Army area reached the Somme rapidly from 17 to 20 March, with a continuous pursuit by vanguards and the main body moving forward by bounds between lines of resistance, up to the Somme river and Canal du Nord, which ran north-to-south from Offoy to Péronne, then paused while the river was bridged, with a priority of light bridges for infantry first, pontoon or trestle bridges for wagons and field artillery and then heavy bridges for mechanical transport and heavy artillery. A number of devices with such fuzes were planted in bunkers but most booby-traps had simple pressure detonators. Parallel north is often called the halfway point between the Equator&the North Pole. The British Fourth Army prepared to support the attack with artillery and such infantry attacks as could be attempted, while communications were being repaired. , Labour was transferred to work on the Hundingstellung from La Fère to Rethel and 20 fortress labour battalions were sent to work on the forward positions on the Aisne front on 23 February. This boundary line â¦ , Hindenburg and Ludendorff forced a return to the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare on 9 January 1917 and engineered the dismissal of the Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg and other opponents of the policy the next day. Instead of a long period of artillery registration (firing ranging shots before the attack) and wire-cutting, which would have warned the German defence that an assault was being prepared, massed artillery-fire did not begin until the infantry–tank advance began on 20 November, using unregistered (predicted) fire. The German strategic reserve rose to c. 40 divisions by the end of March and the Aisne front was reinforced with the 1st Army, released by Operation Alberich and other divisions, which raised the number to 21 in line and 17 in reserve on the Aisne by early April. Lagnicourt was lost on 26 March and a counter-attack from Noreuil repulsed, then a British attack on Bucquoy was defeated. All guns and howitzers up to 6 in (150 mm) able to bear on the target, opened rapid fire using corrections of aim from the air observer. , A sequence of Allied offensives began with attacks by American and French armies on 26 September 1918 from Rheims to the Meuse, two British armies at Cambrai on 27 September, British, Belgian and French armies in Flanders on 28 September; on 29 September the British Fourth Army (including the US II Corps) attacked the Hindenburg Line from Holnon north to Vendhuille while the French First Army attacked the area from St Quentin to the south. German workers were to be subjected to an Auxiliary Service Law (Hilfsdienstgesetz) that from November 1916, subjected all Germans from 16 to 50 years old to compulsory service. The attack was postponed for 24 hours but only four of the twelve tanks in the attack were in position on time. The withdrawal went straight back to the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) except for outposts at Hénin sur Cojeul, St Martin sur Cojeul and the west end of Neuville Vitasse. , The 2nd Army conducted the withdrawal with the line-holding divisions, which were fresher than the divisions of the 1st Army and assisted by several cavalry divisions and cyclist battalions. Continuous and methodical battles were replaced by limited attacks followed by consolidation. Information from captured documents and prisoners had disclosed the details of Unternehmen Alberich and that outpost villages had to be held for longer than planned, to enable work to continue on the Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung), where it was being rebuilt south of Quéant. Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The northern outpost villages were lost on 2 April and Lempire fell on 5 April. The German outpost villages from Doignies to Croisilles were captured on 2 April and an attack on a 3,500 yd (2.0 mi; 3.2 km) front, with Bullecourt in the centre was planned. Hindenburg Lineis the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. On 7 February, British attacks threatened the German hold on Grandcourt and Serre. Unrestricted submarine warfare caused the United States to declare war on 6 April and failed to isolate Britain from its overseas sources of supply. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French soldier with a map of the Hindenburg Line (in red) in the background, 1915 lithograph. The army could not withstand another battle like the Somme; work on defences there was futile and would exhaust the troops for nothing. At the Chantilly Conference of November 1916 the Allies agreed to mount another general offensive. , The Battle of Cambrai began with a secret deployment of British reinforcements for the attack. Lossberg and Hoen doubted that relief divisions could arrive quickly enough to counter-attack before Allied infantry had consolidated. The Hindenburg Line (German: Siegfriedstellung, Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front during the First World War.  Belated awareness of the significance of the building work along the base of the Noyon Salient, has also been given as a reason for a cautious pursuit deliberately chosen, rather than an inept and failed attempt to intercept the German retirement.  Roads were flooded by destroying drains and water-courses; wells sabotaged by drilling a shaft next to them and exploding a charge, permanently ruining the well. Next day, German rear guards inflicted 174 casualties on Australian troops near Loupart Wood and forced British troops back out of Irles with artillery-fire. Hindenburg Line- It is a demarcation line between Germany and Poland. The infantry advance was to reach the German heavy artillery in one attack and then widen the breach with lateral attacks. Heudicourt, Sorel and Fins were lost on 30 March. The line named after German Army General Paul Von Hindenburg. (a) Hindenburg Line (b) Curzon Line (c) Green Line (d) Plimsoll Line Show Answer (b) Curzon Line. Joffre was replaced by Nivelle on 13 December, who proposed a much more ambitious strategy, in which the plan for a resumption of Anglo-French attacks either side of the Somme battlefield of 1916 was retained but the offensive on the Aisne was converted to a breakthrough offensive, to be followed by the commitment of a strategic reserve of 27 divisions, to fight a "decisive" battle leading to the exploitation of the victory by all of the British and French armies. German air units were concentrated around Arras and the Aisne, which left few to operate over the Noyon Salient during the retirement. 38th Parallel â It is a demarcation line between the Democratic Peopleâs Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea â¦ By May the attack was intended to help the Third Army to advance, hold German troops in the area and assist the French army attacks on the Aisne. The breaking of the Hindenburg Line was part of a series of Allied assaults known as the Hundred Days Offensive, which led to â¦ * Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The Hindenburg Line resisted all Allied attacks in 1917 and was not breached until late in 1918. Corrections? Three intermediate defensive lines begun in late 1916, much closer to the Somme front, were observed by British reconnaissance aircraft, which made fragmentary reports of digging further back unexceptional. The German 27th, 3rd Guard, 2nd Guard Reserve divisions and a regiment of the 207th Division had made six big counter-attacks and also had many casualties. Anglo-French spring offensive in 1917 during World War I attention at the end of the columns boldly... On ground operations got round the flanks and captured the villages withdrawal, although destruction... Havre with 72 hours ' notice advance uncovered to British ground observers another part of a bigger to! 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