Global standardization and local complexity. The vessels included in AIS-data analysis were those that had active fishing activity for at least 24 hours in the reference year. Friedman, K., Braccini, M., Bjerregaard-Walsh, M., Bonfil, R., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Brouwer, S., Campbell, I., Coelho, R., Cortés, E., Dimmlich, W., Frisk, M.G., Kingma, I., McCully Phillips, S.R., O’Criodain, C., Parker, D., Shephard, S., Tovar-Ávila, J. [Cited 20 December 2019]. The dominance of aquaculture in global fish markets has significant implications for fish distribution and consumption. 1539 1 1974 90. The livelihoods of many, particularly among the rural poor, are based on having secure and equitable access to and management of fisheries and aquaculture resources, as these resources provide shelter and highly nutritious food, underpin social, cultural and religious practices, and are a central factor in equitable economic growth and social cohesion. Noting these and other important developments in world fisheries, FAO facilitated negotiation of the Code to be consistent with existing instruments and, in a non-mandatory manner, establish principles and standards applicable to the conservation, management and development of all fisheries. The conservation and wise use of such biodiverse wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation contributes towards achieving sustainable development of freshwater and coastal systems (for example, Fiji designated Qoliqoli Cokovata [Ramsar Site no. CAC/RCP 52-2003, updated 2016. 627. This is based on per capita GDP, a composite of the World Bank’s governance indicators and a dummy variable indicating whether a State is classified as a least developed country (LDC). This demonstrates the global commitment and consensus to combat IUU fishing through multiple approaches. 4 Here, the European Union is considered as the EU27. The group represents 7.7 percent of global inland fish catch. Migrant workers and the COVID-19 pandemic [online]. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. Over time, the adoption of good management practices and certification schemes has decreased the volumes of unsustainable catches of species targeted for reduction to fishmeal. TveterÃ¥s, S., Asche, F., Bellamare, M.F., Smith, M.D., Guttormsen, A.G., Lem, A., Lien, K. & Vannuccini, S. 2012. Nature Climate Change, 3: 254–258 [online]. recreational fisheries, and socio-economic information). & James, D.G. The indicator measures the value added of sustainable marine capture fisheries as a proportion of GDP. Mastrandrea & L.L. 2019. Inland aquaculture produces most farmed aquatic animals, mainly in freshwater; hence, it is interchangeably called freshwater aquaculture in most producing countries. In the aquatic genetic resources (AqGR) information system, ASFIS will provide the species backbone to which the inventory of farmed types will be mapped. A continuation of a catch reduction policy beyond its Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (2016–2020) is expected to result in further decreases in coming years (see the section Fisheries and aquaculture projections). One outcome of the latter was the recognition that the region has a number of relevant frameworks, in particular the New Song (the Noumea Strategy, 2015) for Coastal Fisheries, for which information is regularly collected (Pacific Community, 2019). Finally, it is worth highlighting that, already in 2016, FAO together with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) had developed the OECD–FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains to help enterprises observe existing standards for responsible business conduct along agricultural supply chains in order to mitigate adverse impacts and contribute to sustainable development. However, it must be emphasized that sex-disaggregated data are not sufficient to reflect the reality and the real position of women working in the various segments of the industry. The following major trends for the period up to 2030 emerge from the analysis: ▸ World fish production, consumption and trade are expected to increase, but with a growth rate that will slow over time. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) & Jennings, S. 2014. 2020. 1539 1 1983 83.333333330000002. 2019. Access to markets generally included actions such as improving traceability, certification and ecolabelling as well as access to market-based instruments, and related capacity building for fishing communities. [Cited 26 December 2019]. New tools building on proven technologies such as mobile phones or cloud-based systems are being deployed to address some of the persistent weaknesses (Box 23). The remaining data are official statistics collected on an ad hoc basis from a few countries that did not respond officially to FAO’s request for national data. 2015. Marine Biotechnology. BOX 23 SMARTFORMS AND CALIPSEO – FAO’S NEW TOOLS TO HELP ADDRESS WEAKNESSES IN NATIONAL DATA SYSTEMS. FAO Committee on Fisheries / Comité des Pêches de la FAO / Comité de Pesca de la FAO. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367: 2979–2989 [online]. Actively supporting Pillars 1–4 with several cross-cutting issues such as capacity and competence development, disease intelligence and risk communication, education and extension, targeted research and development and innovation (FAO Committee on Fisheries, 2019b). It is expected that at the aggregated, global scale, data layers will only change significantly over a five-to-ten-year period, and this would be the typical time frame for periodic updates on a global state of threats to the inland fisheries. The strong linkages that exist between the SDGs mean that achieving the targets set out in SDG 14 will have positive knock-on effects that are felt across society, and that achieving SDG 14 will be dependent on good progress being made towards the other closely related SDGs. In: FAO [online]. As indicated above, a significant but declining proportion of world fisheries production is processed into fishmeal and fish oil. 2019. However, AIS was originally designed for maritime security purposes – so that ships are aware of other ships’ positions – and its use for another purpose is likely to lead to problems and is not recommended. The situation seems more critical for some highly migratory, straddling and other fisheries resources that are fished solely or partially in the high seas. China’s share in world production fell from 59.9 percent in 1995 to 57.9 percent in 2018 and is expected to fall further in coming years. hotels, restaurants and catering. PDF. Marine protected areas (MPAs) will be less effective for highly migratory species in comparison with deep-sea species that are almost resident in a particular area (for example, those associated with a seamount), especially so in ABNJ, where pelagic species may occupy large geographical areas. The project identified as barriers to adaptation: (i) institutional weaknesses; ii) low adaptive capacity of local livelihoods; and (iii) low level of awareness or unclear appreciation among coastal communities of climate change impacts. 5 Common roles of women in aquaculture: small-scale production, post-harvest industrial and artisanal processing, value addition, marketing and sales. 128 pp. planning, monitoring and pilots. The monitoring of the Code’s implementation is conducted through three biennial questionnaires, as discussed in the section Progress on the road to sustainability. 2019j. These modelling studies generally project that fisheries productivity will increase in high latitudes and decrease in mid- and low latitudes (Porter et al., 2014), primarily due to species shift. Fewer than one-third of Members report having put in place complete and enabling policy, legal and institutional frameworks for ICZM, and about half have partially developed frameworks awaiting adoption (Figure 43). 92–98]). This vision needs to recognize the crucial role of fisheries in future economic development, food, nutrition and livelihood security, in the context of the multiple environmental impacts that humans have to address, on land and in water, in order to place humanity on a more sustainable footing. While China will remain the world’s leading producer, its share in total production will decrease from 58 percent in 2018 to 56 percent in 2030. About 2 400 species produced and 1 000 items traded are conveyed into eight main groups of similar biological characteristic, reflecting FAO’s International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants. In polyculture operations, feeds used for fed species may also be harvested by filter-feeding species, depending on the type and quality of feeds. In Europe and Oceania, the fleet size represented over 2 percent and less than 1 percent of the global fleet, respectively, despite the importance of fishing in both regions. Global Dialogue on Seafood Traceability [online]. Physical and regulatory restraints on production growth helped to push traded salmon prices to record highs in 2018, levels that were approached once again in late 2019 and early 2020. This is due to its inherent nature for fish capture, and because ALDFG continues to ghost-fish and entangle marine animals for a long time. The role of new technologies in minimizing food loss and waste across the fish value chain will allow for the more efficient use of resources, and move towards more complete utilization of fish, thereby reducing the need to extract further resources. Member States were encouraged to cover the period 2014-2020, to provide quantified targets and indicators and to make a mid- DOI: 10.1126/science.1255641, Merino, G., Barange, M., Blanchard, J.L., Harle, J., Holmes, R., Allen, I., Allison, E.H., Badcheck, M.C., Dulvy, N.K., Holt, J., Jennings, S., Mullon, C. & Rodwell, L.D. 2018. changes in target species and in marketing strategies in line with changes in demand), with some small-scale fisheries potentially adjusting more quickly to market demand. [Cited 18 March 2020]. Excessive consumption of sugar-rich, high-fat foods and their negative health impact is a growing problem in many countries, both developing and developed. Their results are discussed biennially at the COFI Sub-Committee on Aquaculture and the COFI Sub-Committee on Fish Trade, respectively. These semantically connected databases enable users to search across themes or download material in various formats, and applications to extract relevant content (e.g. 2 Barange, M., Bahri, T., Beveridge, M.C.M., Cochrane, K.L., Funge-Smith, S. & Poulain, F., eds. The recent low growth rate was caused by the slowdown in China, the largest producer, where aquaculture production growth of only 2.2 percent in 2017 and 1.6 percent in 2018 were witnessed, while the combined production from the rest of the world still enjoyed moderate growth of 6.7 percent and 5.5 percent, respectively, in the same two years. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing remains one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems, undermining efforts to manage fisheries sustainably and to conserve marine biodiversity (see the section Combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing). in Ghana's aquaculture industry such as the production of live fish food, marine fish and shellfish culture, integrated fish farming, the culture of indigenous fish species, and investment in the fish feed industry. Imports make up a substantial and increasing portion of fish consumed in Europe and North America (about 70–80 percent) and Africa (35 percent in 2017, down from over 40 percent in previous years) because of solid demand, including that for non-locally produced species, in the face of static or declining domestic fish production. The main objective of the Global Record is to increase transparency and traceability (and support risk assessments of vessels involved in fishing activities) in order to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities within the framework of existing international instruments, including the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (PSMA). Mach, M.D. This is particularly true for isolated communities that rely on small-scale and artisanal fisheries and aquaculture, where fish is a central part of the diet. This underlines the importance of location, seasonality, socio-economic status, and gender in relation to access to fish as food. Gear-related safety challenges were identified and recommendations made to incorporate traditional practices and seafaring skills into the new safety-at-sea awareness-raising and training programmes. A country profile consists of three sections. The BGI also aims to engage with other relevant sectors using oceans or inland waters around key policies, investment and innovations in support of sustainable growth in fisheries and aquaculture and which open up new economic opportunities in ecosystem goods and services. FIGURE 26APPARENT FISH CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA, AVERAGE 2015–2017. Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi), the second-most important species in terms of landings in the region, has had stable landings at about 350 000 tonnes in the past decade, but its status has remained at unsustainable, although with signs of slow recovery. To date, the ongoing initiatives (see table) have resulted in the creation and functioning of seven inter-institutional coordination entities focused on the fisheries sector at the national, regional and local levels, and training and awareness raising on climate change targeting civil society, schoolchildren and youth. In 2019, the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Certification and Inspection Systems established an electronic working group on food fraud with a wide-ranging remit to review existing Codex texts to determine how to progress work in this area. It further recommended that the SAG be a dynamic document, regularly revised. Aquaculture production of these 622 species items corresponds to 466 individual species, 7 interspecific hybrids of finfish, 92 species groups at genus level, 32 species groups at family level, and 25 species groups at the level of order or higher. Target 14.b of the 2030 Agenda – provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets – recognizes the importance of addressing the challenges facing small-scale fisheries. Several RFMO/As and regional environmental authorities (regional seas organizations and conventions) are working together to incorporate explicit benchmarks for the conservation of this biodiversity, benchmarks that reflect the more decisive commitment of capture fisheries to address ecosystem and biodiversity considerations across its activities (CBD, 2018). Yet, the average annual growth rate of aquaculture should slow from 4.6 percent in 2007–2018 to 2.3 percent in 2019–2030 (Figure 52). Developing countries have increased their share of international fish trade – up from 38 percent to 54 percent of global export value and from 34 percent to 60 percent of total volumes between 1976 and 2018. ▸ Increasing average age of fishers together with higher availability of technological tools provide opportunities for sectoral restructuring and improved opportunities for young and well-qualified people, leading to reductions in catching efforts with improved economic returns and resource sustainability. Note: At the time of writing (March 2020), the COVID-19 pandemic has affected most countries in the world, with severe impacts on the global economy and the food production and distribution sector, including fisheries and aquaculture. 2020. Inclusive development is at the heart of all policies. The FAO Technical Guidelines for the Estimation of the Magnitude and Impact of IUU Fishing will be composed of six volumes, the first two of which have already been published, with the other four to be published in the coming years. The new assessment includes, among others: an estimate of annual discards by marine commercial fisheries for the period 2010–14; an evaluation and discussion of bycatch and discards of endangered, threatened and protected species; and a review of current measures for managing bycatch (Box 15) and reduction of discards. 2019n. Linking ASFA’s bibliographic records and the ASFIS database with the data in the AqGR registry will ensure a highly specific information stream on aquaculture species, alerting users of AqGR-relevant research conducted by ASFA contributors (research institutions, non-governmental organizations and academia). The aim is to provide countries with the tools to build a strong national information system and conduct data-based analysis to develop successful and timely damage and loss assessments in the marine, inland and aquaculture subsectors. Profiles with up-to-date Part 1 details and widgets are available for more than 170 countries, and with Part 2 narrative sections in English, French or Spanish for more than 80 countries. Fisheries and aquaculture are central to the achievement of food security, and economic, social and environmental goals. The UAE government is focusing on increasing aquaculture projects as it is a viable source for improving the region’s food security which is … Skipjack tuna prices in Ecuador and Thailand, 37. Beyond meeting basic nutritional requirements, studies have also identified multiple health benefits associated with regular consumption of fish. Blue fashion uses fish industry by-products – such as fish skins that are made into leather clothes and shoes – creating employment and income, especially for women and young people. Variables used in the threat assessment for inland fisheries, 21. [Cited 22 May 2020]. While it is estimated that ALDFG may only constitute about 10 percent of all marine litter, it is recognized as the deadliest form of marine debris to ocean wildlife. Heads, frames, fillet cut-offs and skin can be used directly as food or processed into fish sausages, pâté, cakes, snacks, gelatine, soups, sauces and other products for human consumption. Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: marine pharmacology. The sustained high prices for bivalves have catalysed expansion of the bivalve aquaculture industry in various regions. 2007. The Director of the FAO Fisheries Division, Manuel Barange, will address the key outcomes of the 2019 FAO Symposium on Fisheries Sustainability, in the context of the 2020 edition of the FAO State of Global Fisheries and Aquaculture Report (SOFIA) with reactions from the European Commission DG Mare and key stakeholders. World + 10 more. (also available at Members have been expressing an interest in better guidance on the governance of small-scale fisheries since the mid-2000s, especially with regard to safety at sea since 2009. The SDGs aim to nurture broad development and engender wider social inclusiveness and stability. 30 pp. 942, Rev. A recent paper1 shows that, in the case of “assessed” stocks, the average fishing pressure increased and fish biomass declined on average until 1995 when fishing pressure began to decrease. However, the crisis has triggered unprecedented responses by governments across the world. Biosecurity systems developed and implemented. White, eds. Fish are not isolated components of marine ecosystems. The Code promotes responsible fisheries and aquaculture, covering virtually all aspects of the sector, from responsible fishing and aquaculture practices to trade and marketing, and it has guided government policies on all continents. The number of people engaged in the fisheries and aquaculture primary sector varies by region. The State Of World Fisheries And Aquaculture 2020 by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Several decades ago the efforts of public administrations were concentrated on de However, there have also been undesirable environmental impacts at the local, regional and global levels. The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement (in force since 2001) should be used as the legal basis for management measures of the high seas fisheries. Number of countries that have a legal framework for the development of responsible aquaculture in line with the Code, as reported by Members, 44. 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